The pages below come from a teacher whose notebook here also details the lessons and plans, along with individual student notes on their abilities.
Education 202 – [The proper way to teach a child in a classroom] from 1928
Wednesday June 8, 1928
What is your philosophy of education?
The teacher’s philosophy of education has a tremendous effect on her work.
As soon as you have learned to work well, try to work “quick”.
If you do not take pains, you must not expect to excel in anything.
The teacher should see that his pupils form those habits, both mental and physical that will best serve them in living.
Attentive and industrious people can always find time to do what is proper for them to do.
Education is “Life”.
Education is Growth
Education is much more than living.
Character is the formation of good habits.
The physical goat is real happiness based on three things:
- To live.
- To grow mentally and physically.
- To render service.
Repeat a thing from sixty to two hundred times to fix it in the mind.
Children do not have character – they have tendencies to good character.
The child will accomplish more under eighty lessons, given under a variety of ways than under one hundred eighty given under one way.
Teaching a child to swing in twelve lessons better than trying to do it in one lesson, Swimming is an exercise that gives treat pleasure and should carry with great precaution on the part of the teacher. The child should be encouraged in his attempt to swim.
Give reward just as soon as possible after the task has been finished.
Right habits of action and thinking make for high ideals.
The reorganization of the course of study is going on in many places. Why is this? The old course of study does not function in such a way as to get the results wanted.
What is the thing most emphasized in education? Making good citizens – a good child citizen.
The most helpful thing in the making of good citizens out of our children is health training.
A good citizen knees to be well, active, vigorous, helpful and interested in his surroundings. Good health is conducive to these attributes.
Lighting and ventilation should be looked after as it is an aid to mental and physical activity.
The health of the child is the basic thing upon which to build.
Speech is necessary in character formation. We need it in order to communicate with each other. There is oral speech and written speech.
Reading is one of the fundamentals of good speech.
“Books are keys to window’s treasure.
Books are gates to lands of pleasure.
Books are paths that upward lead
Books are friends, come let us read.”
Books take care of the leisure hours.
Length of line and phrase gives the child power to read.
Understanding is important forms to understand the child and what he needs.
Teachers should have definite aims.
Example: In teaching a picture, give the name of artist that painted the picture, but first give name of picture after these two things are impressed on the child’s mind, talk about the beauty of the picture.
Physical organization is an important thing. A good physical condition gives opportunity to variety and good work.
The physical make-up of the school room is:
- The child
- The teacher
- . Equipment
The child needs an incentive and stimulus to work. The child realized the importance of work.
Stress the correct posture for the child. Train him to move about the room. These are social actions.
The first day of school is the most important of all.
Stress being good workers.
The training of children, and stimulating them to do their best with the talents they have is one of the biggest jobs in the world.
Without joy in your work nothing great is done.
The children were brought in for us to see and know but principally for them to get
Acquainted with us and to satisfy their curiosity so that we would not disturb them when we go in their room to see them work.
Miss Glass urged us to get contact with these children through some medium.
Miss Glass gave us an interesting talk on the value of exercise.
The honor roll - one of the incentives in getting children to work. Talk a great deal about the child being a good worker.
The children came in again to see us. Miss Glass talked to them about being good workers and had them observe us at work.
The correct posture of the child was stressed and each child was given some individual attention by Miss Glass.
Children and adults want attention.
Help one child every day, but five should be helped.
Dr. McMurray said “if I had my life as a teacher to live over, I would give special attention to the cementing of friendship between me and my pupils.”
Teachers should impress on pupils their personality.
The statue of David was shown to children as an example of growth and proper stature. This statue will be used as an incentive to good work.
Find medium of appeal between you and the child. Example” “mother and boy.”
To get the best from those with whom we work, we must give our best.
Good work is the result of persistent effort.
The human body is the work of creation.
To know a thing, we must know it many times.
- W. H.
Tues June 12
Improving one’s effectiveness in study is largely a matter of developing better form in reading and better habits of listening, observing, thinking and of – flying.
To read well is to think well. The eye is merely the servant of the alert mind.
To form a habit, follow four principles:
- Begin with a strong determination
- Make an emphatic start.
- Permit no exception.
- Find opportunities for frequent repetitions.
Monday and Friday of the week are bad days. Why?
Give two-minute rest periods and wake up periods.
Jokes are good. They train the child to be sensitive to a point.
And teach self-expression. Humor is one of the essentials of life. Laughter brings a feeling of good fellowship between teacher and pupil. Laugh at the right thing.
Friday – Word Study
Take certain objects they want to describe – Ex: Airplane. In studying the different parts of the machine new words are learned.
Take certain definite things for definite days. This stimulates the child for a certain type of reading.
Get contact between teacher and child.
Let children do an unusual thing, do something new. A child often does the unusual thing in activity. Jumping over the desk is an unusual thing. Often the situation in the classroom suggest something to do.
Children came in to visit us.
Miss Glass gave an interesting talk on correct posture in standing. And got good response from the children.
Children watched us study. Then we went in to see them work. We found a very interesting little group – all intent on what they were doing.
Books for study: “Children’s Reading” (Ferman and Lima)
Wednesday 13, 1928
Thoroughness is a trait of character. It is one of the elements of success in life.
The law of nature is that a certain quality of work is necessary to produce a certain quality of good, of any kind whatsoever.
If you want knowledge, you must toil for it; if you want food, you must work for it, and if you want pleasure you must toil for that, too.
Emerson says that nothing great was ever accomplished without “enthusiasm”.
Men do more through habit than through reason.
Habit is nine tenths of life.
We should have an intense desire to form good habits.
Good habits are the greatest economy in learning.
It is easier to form one hundred habits in children than it is to re-form one in adults.
We visited the children again. We found Miss Peck reading a story to one group and group at the table at work.
The thing that impressed me most was the intense interest the children were giving to the reading of the story. They were in perfect position with the exception of one or two.
Miss Peck stopped reading at a most interesting part of the story but promised to finish tomorrow.
All children at table went to seats. Miss Peck put
Up the flag and gave an interesting talk about it; who designed it, who made it, its birthday and its significance – arousing interest all the while leading up to the teaching of a song about it.
We returned to our room and took up the subject of reading – “Children’s Reading.”
The enjoyment of good literature requires a cultivated taste.
Less than one half of the people in the U.S. can be included in the “reading public”. The majority of these read nothing but the daily news.”
Discriminating and intelligent reading is an important factor in education.
Children receive their knowledge through:
Reading give power to get thoughts.
An appreciation of good literature must be systematically taught.
The reading habit is formed during the impressionable period of life; childhood and youth.
The first step in forming the reading habit is to:
Master the mechanics of reading.
Reading is an art. Teachers should be artists.
Miss Glass gave an interesting talk on word and phrase building – taking the word child for example.
Thursday June 14, 1928
- Thrift and respect for property
- Attention and concentration
- Initiative and leadership
Went in Miss Peck’s room to see the children work. They were out of the room but soon came in orderly and quiet and stood at the right side of the desk until told to be seated.
Miss Glass seated the children at work table by using flash cards with the children’s names printed on them. This required attention on the part of the children, who were eager to go to the table and also attention on the part of the teachers who wanted to learn the names of the pupils.
The children were given letter boxes with direction as how to use them. They were then sent to their desks by use of the flash cards
Miss Glass then showed them a picture, “The birthday of our flag.”
Sentences about the flag in sequence, were written on the board by Miss Peck.
This proved to be a very stimulating word and phrase drill.
Today is June 14, 1928
Today is the birthday of our flag. It is one hundred fifty-one years old.
George Washington planned our flag and Betsy Ross made it.
Our flag is very beautiful.
The colors are red, white and blue.
There are thirteen stripes in our flag.
The stripes are red and white.
Seven of the stripes are red and six are white.
There are forty-eight stars in our flag.
The stars are white in a field of blue.
One of the stars is for our state, Texas.
We should learn to love our flag.
Our flag says to me –
Children were asked to go to board to frame phrases and sentences.
This is an important exercise letting the child find the sentences. In doing this they were getting understanding which is conducive to attention and concentration.
Give five or ten minutes every day for special things. Don’t let this be “just incidental”
But have a regular time for it, the best time for it is at the beginning of the day.
Children must be trained in specialized skill in reading.
Tests are given high rate and comprehension in reading.
The higher the rate the better. The understanding. How do we know this? By tests which estimate the child’s rate of reading and his comprehension.
Perception cards are built scientifically for certain purposes. One of the purposes is to increase the life span.
Phrase drill and short sentences – fine exercise.
The child’s eye span determines rate and comprehension.
Give perception drill every day.
Can’t be an excellent reader until the child can phrase well and put words together smoothly.
The silent readers have more factual material and give a higher degree of comprehension than the oral readers do. The comprehension is more definite.
Most adult books are built on uniformity of difficulty. This is the difference between he basal and supplementary readers. The supplementary reader is of more uniform difficulty.
We should have two basal readers for our grade, and give special definite training in reading.
“Much easy reading makes easy reading.”
Project lessons - (Ford???)
The sight readers are built on the vocabulary of the basal text. The merit of this is the child gets a high degree of mastery of his vocabulary.
Bulletins or reading from charts gives life situations and furnishes live material.
We should have two or three of these lessons a week.
Watch these three things in giving a lesson of that kind for it is not as easy as one might think.
- The sequence must be good.
- English must be correct – not too much monotony. Concise, definite and interesting.
- Make this exercise an individual reading lesson.
This is a world growth. We must be satisfied in growing slowly and gradually.
Posture affects appearance. It is your only (as you pass by) message to most of the world.
Posture is one of the vital things.
June 15, 1928 – Friday
- Class grouping
- Daily Program
Learning and development are entirely contingent upon interest and effort.
The highest form of discipline is self-discipline which is based on desire.
The daily program is or should be planned one week ahead.
Order is one of the essentials, but should carry with it much freedom – freedom to move about the room – to do things for himself.
If Miss Glass has a hobby, it is “posture”. Head up, chest high, walk with light step and walk with full swing
Went to see the children. The lesson on the flag was continued.
Miss Glass stressed good habits in reading:
- Holding books right – good position.
- Keep lips closed
- Do not point with fingers.
The children were asked to go to the board and frame sentences and parts of sentences that Miss Glass would read to them.
This exercise proved very interesting and brought out many good points in the teaching of reading.
The children were given the lesson in script on separate sheets of paper – one for each pupil. They were given the same exercise that they had at the board.
This exercise brought in place good reading habits: holding book, keep lips closed and
Do not point with fingers.
The most effective word drills are taken from the reading lesson.
Oral reading gives us power to give thought to others.
We have to make preparation to do a finished piece of work.
There was some training in perception in the lesson this morning:
Perception cards, ‘by the desk’, ‘near the desk,’ ‘on the desk’, ‘in the desk’. ‘Very beautiful’ – color made the flag beautiful, the colors and the meaning of the colors gave an added interest to the study of the flag.
Do not always have the children keep the place in reading.
Pupils can be very helpful to the teacher in helping other pupils.
Have children answer in complete statements.
Change the grouping of your children. “I often put a weak child at the table with bright one to be helped.
Individual work is constructive work.
Just mere reading – reading words, is not the highest type of reading. Reading to get the thought and feeling brings out thinking.
33 – June 16, 1928 – Saturday
We went to Miss Peck’s room and found the children intent on their reading.
Miss Glass called for attention – “close books, put on desks.” And as an introductory to the lesson gave a helpful talk on the care of books. She showed them “Holland’s magazine’ and through the picture on the back taught a lesson on flowers – the love and care of them.
Child Life” has good pictures but too difficult for second grade.
Just here the children showed that they were getting tired. Miss G sensed the situation immediately and gave them an exercise of jumping over the desks or seats:
“Children rise, ready, jump.”
After this exercise was given Miss G used flash cards and asked Miss Peck to read each and put on the board. These sentences were full of ‘action’ and the children were required to do
What the sentences said do:
- Show me something blue.
- Show me just one hand.
- Show me all your fingers.
- Find something little
- Come here.
- Step back
- Turn back
- Please open a book.
- Open the door.
- Bring me a book.
- Draw a line.
- Write your name.
- Walk around.
Miss Glass gave this exercise from board and also from flash cards. This trained the eyes to see quickly and the mind to think quickly.
A lesson of this kind should be given three times a week.
Acting out a sentence gives a child training in comprehension.
It is important to know definitely what you want to do in order for you to give definite instruction to the children so that they can carry out your plan.
The last day of the week is a good time to take an inventory – check up on the things learned.
Tuesday, June 19, 1928
Flowers are music in bloom.
The fragrance and perfume of the flowers represent the personality of the individual
The child’s eye movement habits largely determined his reading ability.
It is imperative that the child form good reading habits from the beginning.
Learn to take pleasure in the little things of life.
Give lesson on Austin this week.
Tomorrow (Wed) a lesson on reading habits – eye movements.
Form good habits in the beginning.
In recognition of words in phrases and sentence, the first and last are the most important.
Continuous study is important to train eyes to work quickly and the mind to think quickly
This is good exercise for building up vocabulary.
Teach facts that give an appreciation – 6 years – 40 years.
Have one of every week. If possible not less than two, better if could have three.
We went in Miss Peck’s room and found the pupils reading their lesson sheets.
Different children were asked to come to the front and read the lesson.
Betty C and Regina read the lesson. Betty C read too fast. Miss G corrected this in a most tactful way.
Regina help paper too low but both read very well.
Different ones were asked to read their favorite sentence. There was a decided improvement in their reading since last week.
Miss G gave an exercise in use of flash cards, using phrases.
This is good eye training. Reading phrases will help to make a good reader.
Children found phrases read by Miss G quickly. The children made sentences using
We live in the city of Austin
In having children make sentences, require them to make true ones.
Flash cards train children to work quickly, and trains in ‘eye – span”.
Miss G – read sentences on Austin – preparing for tomorrow’s lesson.
Some of the large words were written on the board.
Before going to our room Miss G asked them to sing for us. They sang two songs very sweetly.
In teaching words and phrases you are doing individual work. This also gives power to read.
Miss G urged us to take notice of the little things. These are the things that make life worthwhile.
“Conscious of a day’s work well done.”
Music makes you feel, and feeling brings out thought. Let the child get the atmosphere of the song and he will get the time.
Music teacher character
It takes repetition to do anything.
In reading teach the child to visualize to see and to feel what he reads.
This gives the child thought.
Everything has to be guided.
Real reading – true reading, is thinking.
Wednesday, June 20, 1928.
Physical Make-up of Readers.:
- Large, readable type
- Lines perfectly phrased
- Lines of uniform length
- Illustrations appeal to child – color, activity, child’s interests.
- Illustrations closely related to content.
- Content expresses child’s interests and activities.
- Vocabulary checks with authoritative word list.
Habits are the tools by which we achieve health, happiness and efficiency.
Teach script with print
Repetition and change – this gives variety and gets attention.
Pick out sentences for children to read – this is a most excellent reading lesson.
Value of word drills – they give power to read. Give a meaning full vocabulary. Word drills are a preparation for the reading lesson.
All this give training that gives the child power to read.
Lesson in number work with flash cards 4 + 6 = 10, read from bottom to top. The number 6 was developed in addition.
Sowed pictures to children and gave helpful talk on each that aroused interest.
Had children rise and gave them the Swedish stretch exercise.
Miss G whispered certain phrases to write on board:
Capital city. We live large and fine, very large and fine, six years, read granite and let
Say phrases as one word, this makes good reading.
Reviewed phrases of yesterday about ‘school’ with flash cards.
Miss Peck wrote on board today’s reading lesson about Austin.
We live in the city of Austin. The name of our state is Texas. Austin is the capital of Texas. The capital city of a state is where the laws are made. It is where the governor lives. His residence is called the Governor’s Mansion. The building where the laws are made is called the state capitol. Our capitol building is very large and fine.
It is built of red granite. It took six years to build it.
The State University is in Austin.
Pupils will be given the lesson sheets tomorrow and will do some phrasing.
Miss Glass gave a talk, on figures and how to make them – this was a reading lesson for numbers talk just like words.
“I counted the chairs by looking, saying, reading and thinking.”
New work – Miss Peck had children repeat sentences before she wrote them on the board.
Still study the individual child. Learn the children better.
Mar and study the child
Will study eye habits tomorrow.
Lucy Gage’s readers good.
The publishers pay more attention to ‘make up of book than they used to:”
Costume sewing or making.
If a book will stand the test on its physical make-up, it will stand the test on content.
In the first grade the print should be ____.. Third grade normal.
Color of paper has much to do in the making of a book dead – white, cream, neutral cream.
The book should be perfectly phrased.
We are getting away from the ‘hanging line”, more of this form:
This line arrangement develops proper eye span, and eye movement.
The lines should be of equal length.
“We used to use ‘liners”.”
Do not divide phrases.
In the basal readers there is more repetition and the units on a page are complete
In the basal reader you are giving the child power to read.
“in second grade, I want two basal readers and twelve supplementary readers.
State is giving too many basal readers and not enough supplementary readers.
Have children read in basal readers – then read over – make this a definite study.
Group children – in about three groups. Put a bright one usual in group.
I sometimes have one child as my assistant.
:” For busy work, see how many phrases you can find.”
“Name all phrases that tell where things are.”
“Do not say dull, use the terms slow and fast.”
Groups are not named.
49 Thursday, June 21, 1928
Learning how to work effectively is largely a matter of acquiring specific habits.
One should form the habit of taking frequent short periods of rest for the complete relaxation of body and mind.
Children vary greatly in their rate of advancement.
The rate varies greatly at different times. Teach for one month or more, all together, by this time you will know your children and can now group them. It may be necessary to go over all the ground coached but in the end nothing is lost. Some of the slow ones may become the fastest workers.
Self-activity is fundamental to learning.
Teaching is an art based upon more or less scientific principles.
Teaching presents an infinite number of situations that vary greatly.
The most successful drill procedure gives each pupil in the class an opportunity to repeat each association a maximum number of times.
This can be done in a variety of ways.
Drilling is the biggest thing to be done – then the testing.
Failures are most expensive to the state and to the pupil.
People are waking up along educational lines. We used to do a great deal of testing, we are not
Doing more drill work and more teaching.
Schools are giving more attention to report cards in trying to get a better system of grading the pupil.
The report card as it now is, is very unsatisfactory.
Wen in to observe the children at their work.
Miss Glass gave a short talk on lesson habits.
You must train our:
- Hands to be still
- Eyes to see
- Mind to think
- Body to sit erect
Here Miss Glass gave the ‘sleep’ and ‘wake up’ exercise to relax them to get ready for the exercise in phrasing by use of flash cards.
Miss Glass reviewed some of the work but most of it was new material.
The children phrased beautifully and showed improvement.
In having the children phrase, Miss G asked them to tell something of the phrases. This developed thinking on their part.
Miss Glass showed them magazines having beautiful pictures on them and incidentally gave a talk on the care of them.
The lesson sheets were given out. Miss G would read a sentence; children would raise hands when they would find it. Then the children read and Miss G would find them.
This exercise showed attention, concentration and quick work on the part of a great majority of the pupils.
Children were asked to study papers in order to read them well tomorrow
Train a child to see and to know the sentence before he attempts to read it. This discourage guessing. This teaches him to be more definite.
Children must have reward. It may not be in a material way; a little praise, or privilege – something to pay him for his services.
54 Friday, June 22, 1928
- Knowledge of the subject
- 2. Enthusiasm for the subject
- Enthusiasm for boys and girls
- Patience Tact, Sympathy
- Sense of humor
- Social Intelligence, Social Habits.
- Professional Training
- Ethical Standards
Busy work of the right kind adds interest.
Pictures encourage observation and help to cultivate a taste for the beautiful. From pictures we get good ideas for construction work. We can also get health habits from them – lessons for teaching good habits of health.
We should hear a little music every day, see a fine picture, read a little poetry, every day of our lives, so that the world’s cares will not obliterate the sense of the beautiful that God has implanted in the human soul.
At the N.E.A. meeting the key note was to stress the spiritual and moral side of teaching more.
“I had much rather teach a room of twenty-four or thirty “– there’s more interest and more enthusiasm.
Mrs. Robertson conducted the lesson which was making covers for the booklets.
We saw each step in the making of the booklet. This was quite interesting. The children worked with a diligence and interest.
The covers were finished and held up for your inspection, most of them were good, some very good.
The making of these covers for the booklets give the children an added interest in their books.
57 – Saturday June 23, 1928
Miss Glass told me of a splendid lecture that she heard the evening before by Dr. Pittinger on the
Fundamentalists and modernists in education.
Miss Glass read an article “Balancing Account” which was very interesting and contained many good thoughts.
“My progress sheet is my balance sheet.” I” I take and inventory at the end of each week.”
I assign to myself three children a week to give individual help.” If all teachers would do this there wouldn’t be so many failures.
Your promotions and your profits – your failures are your losses.
The pupil’s failure is our failure.
Young minds are eager for leadership but rebel at coercion.
Do we represent the ideals that we expect our children to have?
Miss Glass gave a little talk on the value of incentives, construction work, butterfly books book covers and etc. Get children to do things for themselves.
All children are not leaders. Leaders are helpful, they are a stimulus to the others.
Teachers should be natural – develop your personality be a leader, it is our Motive to lead children
Do your own work in your own way Be a leader.
The following article was written by George Meyer . - most likely for a paper in a college class. The paper details the span of each superintendent's term in office up to William Miller - and the evolution of the school's leadership from the prominence of Physicians to the necessity of an educator at the helm.
Proclamations from governors and house of representatives over the years.
1992 - gov. Ann Richards on White Cane Day
1949 - House recognizes a government class at the Capitol with Principal Mr. F.G. Taquard. Signed by Allan Shivers, president of the Texas senate
2005 - gov. Rick Perry 150th anniversary (sesqui) proclamation
2006 - proclamations from Judith Zaffirini (congresswoman) and from Elliot Nashtait regarding the sesquicentennial in 2006.
2007 - Recognition of Phil Hatlen for retiring and being at the helm for 17 years.